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Mandatory Access Control

Definition of Mandatory Access Control

Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is a security model implemented by computer operating systems to restrict the access individuals or systems have to resources such as files, devices, and networks. Unlike discretionary access control (DAC), where the resource owner determines access permissions, MAC is based on a predefined set of rules established by a system administrator or security policy.

Origin of Mandatory Access Control

MAC traces its origins back to multilevel security systems developed for military and government use in the 1960s. These systems aimed to enforce strict data confidentiality and integrity policies by classifying information into sensitivity levels and limiting access based on clearance levels assigned to users.

Practical Application of Mandatory Access Control

One practical application of MAC is in modern operating systems like Linux, which implements the SELinux (Security-Enhanced Linux) framework. SELinux utilizes MAC to confine processes and users to the minimal amount of privilege required for their tasks, reducing the potential impact of security breaches and limiting the spread of malware.

Benefits of Mandatory Access Control

Enhanced Security: MAC ensures a higher level of security by enforcing strict access controls, reducing the risk of unauthorized access and data breaches.

Granular Control: Administrators can define precise access policies based on user roles, ensuring that only necessary resources are accessible to each user or system component.

Compliance: MAC helps organizations comply with regulatory requirements such as HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) or GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) by providing robust access controls and audit trails.

Protection Against Insider Threats: MAC mitigates the risk of insider threats by limiting the actions users can perform, even if they have legitimate access to the system.


No, they are different models. While MAC focuses on controlling access based on predefined security policies, RBAC assigns permissions based on user roles, simplifying administration in large organizations.

While no security measure is foolproof, MAC significantly reduces the risk of unauthorized access. However, like any security mechanism, it can be circumvented through sophisticated attacks or misconfigurations.

Initially, there might be a slight performance overhead due to the enforcement of access controls. However, the security benefits outweigh the minimal impact on performance, especially in environments where data confidentiality and integrity are paramount.


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