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Operational Technology

Definition of Operational Technology

Operational technology (OT) refers to the hardware and software used to monitor and control physical devices, processes, and infrastructure in industries such as manufacturing, energy, transportation, and utilities. Unlike information technology (IT), which deals with data processing and communication, OT focuses on managing the operational processes themselves.

Origin of Operational Technology

The roots of operational technology can be traced back to the early 20th century with the advent of industrial automation. Initially, OT systems were rudimentary, consisting of mechanical and electrical components designed to automate specific tasks. However, with advancements in computing and networking technologies, OT evolved to incorporate digital controls, sensors, and interconnected systems, leading to the development of modern industrial control systems (ICS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems.

Practical Application of Operational Technology

A prominent example of operational technology in action is within the manufacturing sector. Here, OT solutions are used to optimize production processes, improve efficiency, and ensure product quality. For instance, in an automotive assembly plant, OT systems control robotic arms, conveyor belts, and other machinery to streamline assembly operations, monitor equipment performance in real-time, and detect anomalies that may indicate potential faults or failures.

Benefits of Operational Technology

Enhanced Efficiency: OT enables automation and optimization of operational processes, reducing manual intervention and minimizing downtime, thereby improving overall efficiency.

Improved Safety: By continuously monitoring equipment and environmental conditions, OT helps identify and mitigate safety hazards, minimizing the risk of accidents and ensuring a safer working environment.

Data-driven Decision Making: OT systems collect vast amounts of real-time data, which can be analyzed to gain insights into performance trends, predict maintenance needs, and optimize resource allocation, facilitating informed decision-making.

Cost Reduction: Through predictive maintenance and energy management, OT helps minimize operational costs by optimizing resource usage, extending equipment lifespan, and reducing unplanned downtime.


Operational technology (OT) deals with managing physical processes and infrastructure, such as manufacturing machinery or utility networks, while information technology (IT) focuses on data processing, storage, and communication. OT is concerned with controlling and monitoring physical devices, whereas IT manages digital information and computer systems.

Cybersecurity is a critical concern in operational technology due to the potential risks associated with cyber attacks on industrial control systems (ICS) and SCADA systems. Measures such as network segmentation, access controls, encryption, and regular security audits are implemented to safeguard OT environments against unauthorized access, data breaches, and system disruptions.

Several industries heavily rely on operational technology to manage their operational processes effectively. These include manufacturing, energy and utilities, transportation, healthcare, telecommunications, and critical infrastructure sectors such as water treatment plants and smart cities' infrastructure. OT plays a crucial role in optimizing efficiency, ensuring safety, and maintaining reliability in these sectors.


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