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Password Spraying

Definition of Password Spraying

Password spraying is a cyber attack method where attackers attempt to gain unauthorized access to multiple user accounts by systematically trying commonly used passwords against many usernames. Unlike traditional brute-force attacks, where a single password is tried against many usernames, password spraying involves trying a few commonly used passwords against many accounts, aiming to fly under the radar of security measures that lock out accounts after a certain number of failed login attempts.

Origin of Password Spraying

The technique gained prominence in the early 2000s as organizations began implementing stronger password policies and multi-factor authentication (MFA), making traditional brute-force attacks less effective. With password spraying, attackers capitalize on the fact that many users still choose weak passwords, such as "password123" or "123456," and exploit this vulnerability to gain access to sensitive information.

Practical Application of Password Spraying

One practical application of password spraying is targeting enterprise environments. Attackers often leverage password spraying to gain initial access to corporate networks by targeting email accounts or VPN gateways. Once inside, they can escalate their privileges and move laterally across the network, potentially compromising sensitive data or causing widespread disruption.

Benefits of Password Spraying

Password spraying can be an effective tactic for attackers due to several reasons. Firstly, it is less likely to trigger account lockouts compared to traditional brute-force attacks, allowing attackers to remain undetected for longer periods. Secondly, it exploits human behavior by targeting weak passwords commonly used by individuals across various platforms. Finally, it requires minimal resources and technical expertise, making it accessible to a wide range of threat actors.


Implementing strong password policies, including complex password requirements and regular password updates, can significantly mitigate the risk of password spraying. Additionally, enabling multi-factor authentication (MFA) can provide an extra layer of security by requiring additional verification beyond the password.

Organizations should be vigilant for an increase in failed login attempts across multiple user accounts, particularly if these attempts originate from unfamiliar IP addresses or occur outside of typical business hours. Monitoring for unusual login patterns and enforcing account lockout policies can help detect and mitigate password spraying attacks.

Yes, password managers can help mitigate the risk of password spraying by generating and storing complex, unique passwords for each account. By eliminating the use of weak or commonly used passwords, password managers make it significantly harder for attackers to successfully guess credentials during a password spraying attack.


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