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Cybersecurity glossary

Browse thousands of cybersecurity definitions

What is Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity safeguards computer networks and systems against cyberattacks. It makes it possible for people everywhere to continue with safe online browsing, shopping, communication, and other digital activities. This can include a variety of tools including VPNs and password managers.

A

B

C

D

DNS attack
DNS blocking
DNS cache
DNS client
DNS cname record
DNS encryption
DNS failover
DNS filtering
DNS firewall
DNS flushing
DNS hijacking
DNS hosting
DNS load balancing
DNS MX record
DNS NS record
DNS over HTTPS
DNS port
DNS propagation
DNS proxy
DNS PTR record
DNS query
DNS rebinding attack
DNS record
DNS redirection
DNS redundancy
DNS reflection attack
DNS resolution
DNS round-robin
DNS server
DNS sinkhole
DNS SOA record
DNS SPF record
DNS SRV record
DNS TTL
DNS tunneling
DNS TXT record
DNS zone
DNS zone transfer
DNSSEC
Docker
Document versioning
Domain
Domain admin
Domain controller
Domain fluxing
Domain hijacking
Domain shadowing
Domain spoofing
DomainKeys Identified Mail
Dotted decimal notation
Double tagging
Downloader trojan
Doxxing
DrDoS attack
Dridex
Drive-by attack
Drive-by download
DRM-free
Droppper
DSLAM
Dual homed host
Dumpster diving attack
Dwell Time
Dynamic analysis
Dynamic DNS
Dynamic IP
Dynamic library
Dynamic ports
Dynamic website
Dyreza

E

E-government
Eavesdropping
Echo check
Edge caching
Edge gateway
Egosurfing
Egress filtering
Egress traffic
EIGRP
Elastic IP address
Electronic data interchange
Electronic intelligence
Electronic signature
Elliptic-curve cryptography
Email attack
Email bomb
Email gateway
Email hoax
Email signature
Email spoofing

Email virus
Embedded intelligence
Embedded software
Emission security
Emoticon
Emotion recognition
Emulator
Encapsulating security payload
Encoding
Encrypted file transfer
Encrypted file transfer
Encryption as a service
Encryption key
End-to-end encryption
Endpoint device
Endpoint security
Erasure coding
Error control
Error correction code
Error detection and correction

Escrow Passwords
Ethernet
Ethical hacking
Even parity
Event log
Evil maid attack
Evil twin
Evolutionary computation
Exit node
Expert system
Exploit
Exploit chain
Exploit kit
Expression language injection
Extended ACLs
Extensibility
Extensible Authentication Protocol
Exterior gateway protocol
Extraction
Extranet

F

Face ID
Facebook stalking
Facial recognition
Factory reset
Failover
Fake antivirus
False flag
Fast flux
Fault injection attack
Fault tolerance
FCFS
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
Fiber optic switch
Fiber to the Node
Fieldbus
File allocation table
File binder
File format
File hash
File hosting service

File integrity monitoring
File signature
Fileless attacks
Fileless malware
FileRepMalware
Finite field
FIPS compliance
Firesheep
Firewall
Firewall rules
Firewall rules
Firmware
First-party cookie
Flash cookies
Flat file
Flooder
Flooding
Flow routing
Fog computing
Footprinting

Fork bomb
Form authentication
Format string attack
Formjacking
Forward compatibility
Forward DNS
Forward proxy
FOSS
Four-way handshake
FPS
Fragment overlap attack
Frape
Freedom of information
Freeware
FTP proxy
Full disk encryption
Full duplex
Fullz
Functional dependency
Fuzz testing

G

Gamification
Garbage in garbage out
Garlic routing
Gateway server
GDPR
Generative AI
Generic routing encapsulation
Geo-blocking
Geotagging
GHOST bug
GhostNet

Ghostware
Gigabit-interface-converter
Globbing
Gnosticplayers
Golden ticket attack
Google dorking
Gopher
Government surveillance
GPS jamming
GrandCrab

Granularity
Graphical user interface
Gray hat hacker
Graymail
Green hat hacker
Greylist
Greyware
Grid computing
Group Policy
GSSAPI

H

Hackathon
Hackintosh
Hacktivism
Half duplex
Halt and Catch Fire
Hamming distance
Handshake protocol
Hard link
Hard reboot
Hard reset
Hardening
Hardware acceleration
Hardware identification
Hash chain
Hash function
Hashing
Headless system
Heap spray
Heap spraying
HermeticWiper

Heuristic analysis
Heuristic virus
Hexdump
High anonymity proxy
Hoax
Home server
Homograph attack
Honey monkey
Honeypot
Hop count
Host address
Host intrusion prevention system
Host security
Host virtual machine
Host-based firewall
Host-based intrusion detection system
Hostname
Hosts file
Hot site

Hot spare
Hotlink
HTML Injection
HTML tag
HTTP
HTTP header
HTTP parameter pollution
HTTP proxy
HTTP request smuggling
HTTP Strict Transport Security
HTTPS phishing
Hub and spoke network
Human firewall
Hybrid attack
Hybrid computer
Hybrid encryption
Hybrid firewall
Hyperautomation
Hyperlink
Hyperscale
Hypervisor

I

I/O controller
I2P
Ice phishing
Idempotence
Identity and access management
Identity cloning
Identity fabric
Identity orchestration
Identity proofing
IEEE 802
ILOVEYOU
Image recognition
Image spam
IMEI
Impersonation attack
Incremental backups
Indicator of compromise
Indicators of compromise
Inetd
Inference attack
Information hiding
Information management
Information processing
Information security policy
Infotainment
Infrared
Ingress filtering
Initial access brokers

Initialization vector
Inline frame
Input layer
Input validation attack
Insecure deserialization
Insecure direct object references
Insertion attack
Installcore
Integer overflow
Integrated circuit
Integrated drive electronics
Integrated service digital network
Integrity checking
Intel Virtualization Technology
Intelligent character recognition
Intelligent cloud
Intelligent network
Intelligent web
Interception attacks
Interconnection agreement
Interface message processor
Interior gateway protocol
Internet backbone
Internet background noise
Internet bot
Internet Control Message Protocol
Internet key exchange

Internet of bodies
Internet of Everything
Internet of Medical Things
Internet Protocol address
Internet routing
Internet security
Internet telephony
Internet troll
Internet worm
Intranet
Intrusion detection system
IoT botnet
IoT gateway
IoT middleware
IP address blocking
IP Camera
IP forwarding
IP hijacking
IP packet
IP reputation
IP SLA
IP surveillance
IPv4
IS-IS
ISP
Iterative DNS query
ITSM

J

Jailbreaking
Jammer
Jamming
Jank

Jitter
JSON hijacking
JSONP injection

Juice jacking
Jumbo frame
Jump server

K

Keepalive
Kerberos
Kernel
Key encryption key
Key escrow
Key exchange

Key fob
Key risk indicator
Key rotation
Key schedule
Key-based routing
Keychain

Keylogger
Keypunch machine
Killware
Kovter
KRACK attack
KYC verification

L

LAN party
Lateral movement
Lattice-based access control
Layer 2 Forwarding protocol
Layer 4 switch
Leaf-spine architecture
Leakware
Leased line
Least privilege
Least privilege access
Least Significant Bit
Legacy system
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Linear-feedback shift register

Link encryption
Living off the land attack
Load balancer
Load balancing router
Loadable kernel modules
Local area connection
Local file inclusion
Localhost
Location intelligence
Locky ransomware
Log
Log clipping
Log file
Log4Shell

Logic bomb
Logical access
Logical network
Logical topology
LOLBin
Long-term evolution
LonTalk
LonWorks
Loopback address
Loopback plug
Low latency
LUN masking
Luring attack
Lurking

M

MAC address
Machine cycle
Machine data
Machine learning
Macro virus
Madware
Magecart
Magnet link
Mail exchange record
Main distribution frame
Malicious code
Malleability
Malvertising
Malware obfuscation
Malware-as-a-service
MAM
MAN
Man trap
Man-in-the-middle attack
Managed file transfer
Managed service provider platform
Management information base
Manchester encoding

Mandatory access control
Masquerade attack
Master boot record
Master password
Md5
Media access control
Media access unit
Melissa virus
Meltdown vulnerability
Memory allocation
Memory cache
Memory dump
Merkle tree
Mesh networking
Mesh node
Message broker
Message passing
Message switching
MetaMask
Metasploit
Micro virtual machine
MiFi
Minification

Mix network
Mobile ad hoc network
Mobile code
Mobile credential
Mobile malware
Mobile network operator
Mobile proxy
Modem
Monitoring software
Monoculture
Monte Carlo simulation
Morris worm
Most significant bit
Moves adds and changes
MPLS
MPOE
MSAU
Muling
Multi-homed
Multicast router
Mutual authentication
Mutual exclusion

N

Name resolution
Narrowband
NAS
NAT traversal
Net neutrality
NetBIOS
Netflow
Netiquette
Netmask
Netsplit
Netwalker ransomware
Network access control
Network adapter
Network administrator
Network based ids
Network bottleneck
Network bridge
Network configuration management
Network congestion
Network connectivity
Network convergence
Network database

Network degradation
Network detection and response
Network encryption
Network forensics
Network frame
Network function virtualization
Network hub
Network ID
Network information system
Network infrastructure
Network intelligence
Network interface card
Network intrusion protection system
Network layer
Network management system
Network node manager
Network port
Network prefix
Network processor
Network resilience
Network sandboxing
Network scanning
Network security protocols
Network segment

Network service provider
Network sniffing
Network socket
Network tap
Network throughput
Network Time Protocol
Network topology
Network traffic analysis
Next hop
Nmap
Node
Non-return-to-zero
Nonce
Nonlinearity
Nord name
Northbound interface southbound interface
Not-a-virus
NotPetya
NTP amplification attack
Nuker
Null authentication
Null session

O

Oauth
Obfuscation
OCSP stapling
Odd parity
Offensive security
Offline Attack
OGNL injection
One-time pad

One-time password
One-way encryption
Onion domain
Online data storage
Open port
Open system
Operational level agreement
Operational technology

OPSEC
Optical character recognition
Optical line terminal
OSI layer
OSPF
Overlay network
Overrun
Owasp

P

Packet capture
Packet coalescing
Packet filtering
Packet loss
Packet sniffer
Packet sniffing
Packet switched network
Packet switching
Parallel processing
Parental controls
Parity check
Parser
Pass the hash
Passcode
Passive attack
Passive surveillance
Passphrase
Password authentication protocol
Password policy
Password protection
Password salting
Password sniffer
Password spraying
Password vault
Passwordless
Patch
Patch management
Patch Tuesday
Pattern recognition
Payload
PCI bus
Peer-to-peer
Peering
Perimeter security
Peripheral device
Permalink
Persistent cookie
Personal firewall

Personal identifiable information
Personal VPN
Personal web server
Petya
PGP Encryption
Pharming
Phase-shift keying
Phlashing
PHP injection
Phreaking
Physical address
Physical layer
Piggybacking
Ping
Ping of death
Ping sweep
Pipeline
Pipeline
Pirated software
Platform security
Pod slurping
Point of presence
Point-to-point protocol
Polymorphic malware
Polymorphic virus
Port address translation
Port knocking
Port mirroring
Port scanning
Port triggering
Portable computer
Portal application
Post-quantum cryptography
Potentially unwanted application
Poweliks
Power distribution unit
Power over internet

Power usage effectiveness
PPPoE
Predictive data mining
Preemption
Presentation layer
Pretexting
Privacy policy
Private internet access
Private IP
Priveleged account
Privilege escalation
Privileged access workstation
Proactive defense
Process hollowing
Product cipher
Promiscuous mode
Proprietary information
Proprietary software
Protocol conversion
Protocol stack
Proxy surfing
Pseudonym
Pseudonymization
PsExec
Public cloud infrastructure
Public domain software
Public IP
Public key encryption
Public key infrastructure
Public proxy
PvE
PvP
PWN

Q

QR code phishing
QuadRooter
Quantum cryptography

Quantum error correction
Quantum hacking
Quantum key distribution

Quantum logic gates
Quid pro quo attack

R

Race condition
Rainbow table attack
RAM scraping
Random access memory
RARP
RC4
RC5
RC6
Real time computing
Real-time communications
Real-time data
Recommendation engine
Reconnaissance
Recovery mode
Recovery time objective
Recurrent neutral network
Red hat hacker
Red team
RedHack
Redundant hardware
Relay server
Remote access server
Remote access trojan
Remote attack
Remote computer
Remote desktop
Remote desktop protocol

Remote device
Remote monitoring and management
Remote outdoor router
Remote procedure call
Remote shell
Repeater
Replay attack
Request for Comments
Resident virus
Residual risk
Resource exhaustion
Response time
Reverse brute-force attack
Reverse DNS
Reverse engineering
Reverse-path forwarding
REvil ransomware
RF Jamming
RFC1918
RFID blocking
RFID tag
Rich internet application
Rijndael
Ring network
Risk assessment
Risk modeling
Risk monitoring

Risk-based access control
Risktool
Riskware
Rogue access point
Rogue device
Rogue security software
Rogueware
Rollback
Root access
Root of trust
Root server
Root user
Rooting
Rotating proxy
Round Robin DNS
Round trip time
Route summarization
Routing information protocol
Routing loop
Routing table
Rowhammer
RPG
RPO
Rubber duck debugging
Rubber ducky attack
Ryuk ransomware

S

S/Key
Safe mode
Salami fraud
Salting
Sandbox escape
Sandbox gaming
Sandboxing
Scam
Scanning attack
Scareware
Scatternet
Screen lock
Screen scraping
Screened subnet firewall
Script Kiddie
Scunthorpe problem
SECaaS
Secret key
Secure boot
Secure coding
Secure connection
Secure cookie
Secure destruction
Secure Electronic Transactions
Secure enclave
Secure erase
Secure Print
Secure Shell
Security assessment
Security audit
Security automation
Security certificate
Security content automation protocol
Security domain
Security event management
Security hardening
Security identifier
security operations center
Security perimeter
Security policy
Security software
Security through diversity
Security token
Segment routing
Self-destructing email
Self-signed certificate
Sensitive information
Separation of duties
SerDes
Serial port
Serial server
Server hosting
Server Message Block
Server redundancy
Server virtualization
Serverless
Service pack
Session cookie
Session fixation attack
Session hijacking
Session key
Session layer

Session token
Sextortion
SFTP server
Shadow copy
Shadow Password Files
Shadowsocks
Shamoon
Shared IP
Shared proxy
Shared resources
Shared storage
Sharenting
Sharking
Shellcode
Shimming attack
Shodan search engine
Shoulder surfing
Shylock
Side-channel attack
Sidejacking
Sideloading
Signaling gateway
Signals analysis
Signature verification
Sim toolkit
SIP proxy
Site survey
Skimming attack
Smart bulb
Smart card
Smart contract
Smart grid
Smart meter
SMIME
Smishing
Sms spoofing
Smurf attack
Smurfing
Snake malware
Snowshoe spam
SOC as a service
Social engineering
Soft copy
Softlifting
Software assurance
Software package
Software piracy
Software repository
Software-defined networking
Source code
Source code analysis tool
Spambot
Spamming
Spanning tree protocol
Spear phishing
Spectre vulnerability
Split DNS
Spoofing attack
Spooling
Spyeye
Spyware
SQL injection
SQL injection scanner

SQL injection tool
SSID
SSL Encryption
SSL stripping attack
Stack smashing
Staging server
Stalkerware
STARTTLS
State
Stateful firewall
Stateful inspection
Static code analysis
Static data
Static IP
Static NAT
Static routing
Stealth virus
Stealth VPN
Steganalysis
Steganography
STEM
Sticky bit
Sticky session
Storage area network server
Storage capacity
Storage over Internet Protocol
Stream cipher
Streaming network telemetry
Stress testing
Strict SSL
Strong authentication
Structured prediction
Stub network
STUN
STUN server
Subnet
Subnetting
Substitution cipher
Subtyping
Super cookie
Superkey
Supernetting
Superuser
Svchost.exe
Switching fabric
Switching loop
Sybil attack
Symbian
Symmetric key authentication
SYN flood
Synchronization
Synchronous optical networking
Synthetic data
Synthetic identity theft
Sysinternals
Syslog
Sysmon
System file
System integrity protection
System migration
System security

T

Tabnabbing
Taint analysis
Targeted attacks
Tarpitting
TCP handshake
TCP reset attack
Teardrop attack
Tech support scam
Telecommunications equipment
Telnet
TEMPEST shielding
Template injection
Terminal adapter
Terminal emulation
Terminal master key
Terminal node controller
TeslaCrypt
Tethering
Text data mining
The kill chain
Thick client
Third-party cookie
Third-party risk management

Thrashing
Threat actor
Threat assessment
Threat hunting
Threat landscape
Threat monitoring
Threat vector
Throughput
Thumb drive
Tiger team
Time bomb
Time division duplex
Time to live
Time-division multiplexing
Timestomping
Timing attack
TOCTOU attack
Token ring
Token ring network
Tokenization
Tool kit
Top-down design
Touch ID
Tracking cookie

Tracking pixel
Traffic shaping
Transactional data
Transactions per second
Transceiver
Transcoding
TRANSEC
Transmitter
Transparent bridge
Transparent proxy
Transponder
Transport layer
Transposition cipher
TrickBot
Triple DES
Trivial file transfer protocol
Trojan
True positives
Trusted computing
Tunneling
Two-factor authentication
Two-phase commit
Typosquatting

U

U2F
Ubiquitous computing
UEBA
Uefi rootkit
Unauthorized access
Unicast address
Unified computing system
Uniform resource identifier
Universally unique identifier

Unknown host
Unlabeled data
UPnP
URL filtering
URL injection
URL redirection attack
USB debugging
USB drop attack
USB restricted mode

Use-after-free
Usenet
User Account Control
User agent
User authentication
User datagram protocol
Username
UXSS

V

V2Ray protocol
Vampire tap
Vanity domain
VBN
VCPE
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure
Verichip
Virtual address
Virtual desktop infrastructure
Virtual firewall
Virtual host
Virtual IP address
Virtual machine migration
Virtual private LAN service
Virtual private server

Virtual routing and forwarding
Virtual switch
Virtual terminal
Vishing
VLAN hopping
VLAN tagging
VLAN trunking protocol
VLSM
VM escaping
Vmem
Voice intrusion prevention system
Void pointer
VoIP
Voilatile data

VPN appliance
VPN authentication
VPN concentrator
VPN firewall
VPN gateway
VPN hardware
VPN Token
VPNaaS
Vrealize automation
Vulnerability
Vulnerability assessment
Vulnerability disclosure
Vulnerability management system
Vulnerability scanner

w

Wabbit
Wake-on lan
WAN
WAN aggregation
WAN mini port
WAN optimizer
WAN port
War driving
War texting
Warchalking
Wardialing
Warez
Warm boot
Warshipping

Watering hole attack
Wearable computer
Web access management
Web authorization management

Web beacon
Web cache poisoning
Web content filtering
Web content management
Web protection
Web server security
Web shell
Webhook
Webpage
Website defacement
Website spoofing
Whaling
White hat hacker
White team
Wi-Fi direct

Wildcard certificate
Windowing
Windows deployment services
Windows Registry
Windows Remote Management
Wire transfer fraud
Wireguard
Wireless bridge
Wireless fidelity
Wireless intrusion prevention system
Wireless network security
WMN network
Word size
Workgroup bridge
Workstation
WPA key
WPAN

X

X.509
XDR
Xinetd

XML bomb
XML external entity
XML Injection

XPath injection
XSS

Y

Yak shaving
Yellow hat hacker

Ysoserial

YubiKey

Z

Zero configuration networking
Zero day
Zero trust
Zero-click attack

Zero-knowledge
Zero-latency enterprise
Zeus virus
Zip bomb

Zombie computer
Zombie cookies
Zone file
Zone-based firewall

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